Regional Indian Literature   What is Literature?    Forms of Literature    Literary Criticism    History of Literature    Indian Literature    Book Reviews of Literary icons    Regional Literature    English Literature in India    Contribution of literature    Sahitya Academy Awards
Free E-magazine
Subscribe to our Free E-Magazine on Literature.
Learn More : India Business to Business Directory
Business Directory of Indian Suppliers Manufacturers and Products from India.
India`s leading Yellow pages directory.
India`s leading Yellow pages directory.
Home > Indian Literature > Regional Indian Literature
Regional Indian Literature
Literature in the regional languages flourished around the 11th century and large body of work is availale in each of them.

Tamil Literature has existed for over 2000 years. Tolkaapiyam is said to be one of the world`s oldest surviving grammar books. The classic works of this period are Silappathikaram, Manimekalai and sivakasinathamani. Tamil literature is largely secular although its authors were highly religious.

Kannada Literature is the third oldest literature in the world and its earliest composition dates back to the 5thcentury. Kavirajamarga written in the 8th century by Amoghvarsha Nrpatunga is the first available in Kannada. Literature in Kannada is dividedinto 3 phases - Old, Middle and new. Kannada authors have so far won 7 jnanpeeth Awards - the highest award for literature in India.

Hindi Literature started as religious and philosophical poerty in medieval period in the dialects like Awadhi and Brij. Kabir and Tulsidas are the pillars of literature in this period. Chandrakanta by Devaki Nandan Khatri is considerd to be the first work of prose in Hindi. It has the elements of drama, magic, war, love, all woven together.
Munshi Premchand was the most famous literary figure of his time. His works elucidated the themes of conmmon man. His famous works are Godan, Gaban, Karambhoomi, etc. The Chhayavadi poets include Surya Kant Tripathi "Nirala", Jai Shankar Prasad, Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Verma etc. Other notable poets are Harivansh rai Bachchan, Agyey etc. The progressive poets were Ramdhari Singh "dinkar", Shamsher, Nagarjuna etc. The younger generation includes Kumar Vikal, Umesh Shukla etc.

Prakrit Literature

The most notable Prakrit language was Pali. Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works, poetry and some grammatical works. Major works in Pali are Jataka tales, Dhammapada, Addhakatha, and Mahavansha. Some of the major Pali grammarians were Kachvaayan, Moggalaan and Varruchi (who wrote Prakrit Prakash). Many of Ashvaghosha`s plays were written in Shaurseni Prakrit. Another major work in Shaurseni was Karpoormanjari. Kalidasa, Harsha and Haal used Maharashtrian Prakrit in some of their plays and poetry. Many Shwetambar Jain works are also written in the Maharashtri Prakrit. Many plays (like those of Ashvaghosha) and Jain works were written in the Ardha Magadhi Prakrit.

Urdu Literature , mainly Urdu poetry is a fine example of linguistic and cultural synthesis. Arab and Persian vocabulary based on Hindi language resulted in a vast and extremely popular form that of ghazal literature usually written by muslims in contexts ranging from romance and socirty to philosophy and devotion to Allah.

Bengali Literature dates back to the Charyapadas but it reached its zenithin the 20th century when Tagore won the Nobel prize for literature in 1913 for his writing Gitanjali. Other well known poets are Kazi Nazrul islam, Atul Prasad etc. Shyama sangeet was another popularform of devotional songs writen in praise of Goddess Kali. Notable authors of 19 th century are Tagore, Sarat Chandra, Bankim Chandra,etc . The 19th and 20thcenturies are the years of Bengali Renaissance.

Marathi Literature began with saint-poets like Dnyaneshwar, Tukaram, Ramdas, and Eknath. Modern Marathi literature was marked by a theme of social reform. Well-known figures from this phase include Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Lokhitwadi, and others. Prominent modern literary figures include Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar, P.L. Deshpande, Vijay Tendulkar, and Vishnu Vaman Shirvadakar (Kavi Kusumagraj).

Telugu literature is rich in literary traditions. It is the second largest language spoken in India, is rich in literary traditions.The earliest written literature dates back to the seventh century. The epic literary tradition started with Nannayya who is acclaimed as Telugu`s `Aadikavi` which means the first poet. He belongs to tenth or eleventh century.

Kalapurnodayam by Pingali Suranna, a sixteenth-century poet, is the worlds first literary work in the Stream of consciousness style. The world had to wait for four centuries to have a major work in this tradition in the form of James Joyce`s magnum opus.Vemana who lived in the fourteenth century wrote in the language of the common man. He wrote poems in a simple style. He is the first rebel in literature. He questioned the prevailing pseudo values and conventions and religious practices in his poems. His philosophy made him a unique poet of the masses.
Ancient Indian Liter.. Panini and Ashtadhy.. Sanskrit Plays
Classical Poetry Regional Indian Lite.. Medieval Indian Lite..
Literature during Co.. Contemporary Indian .. | Home | Sitemap | Contact Us